OBJECTIVES: Learn to experience the changes with each yoga technique. Preparation of own schedule as session to general people, yoga for teacher, yoga for geriatrics, yoga for kids, etc. Learn to memorize the names and their importance on body and mind. Learn to take the true essence of yoga than modernization. Accept the true form of yoga. Learn to avoid the comforts and pleasures in learning process.
Historical context: Asana are named as per the meaning of Sanskrit word or benefit it gives or name of the shape it looks or name of the inventor like practitioner or saint.
1. Siddhasana (or) Auspicious Pose
2. Padmasana (or) Lotus pose
3. Bhadrasana (or) Protective pose
4. Muktasana (or) Release pose
5. Vajrasana (or) Thunder bolt pose
6. Swastikasana (or) Gracious pose
7. Simhasana (or) Lion pose
8. Gomukhasana (or) Cow face pose
9. Virasana (or) Hero pose
10. Dhanurasana (or) Bow pose
11. Mritasana (or) Corpse pose
12. Guptasana (or) Hiding pose
13. Matsyasana (or) Fish pose
14. Matsyendrasana (or) Matsyendranath pose
15. Paschimottanasana (or) Back stretch pose
16. Gorakshasana (or) Gorakshanath pose
17. Utkatasana (or) Chair pose
19. Mayurasana (or) Peacock pose
20. Kukkutasana (or) Kuku bird pose
21. Kurmasana (or) Turtle pose
22. Uttana Kurmasana (or) Lifted Turtle pose
23. Mandukasana (or) Frog pose
24. Uttana Mandukasana (or) Lifted Frog Pose
25. Vrikshasana (or) Tree pose
26. Garudasana (or) Eale pose
27. Vrisbhasana (or) Bull pose
28. Balasana (or) Child pose
29. Makarasana (or) Crocodile pose
30. Ushtrasana (or) Camel pose
31. Bhujangasana (or) Shoulder opening pose
32. Yogasana (or) Transformative pose
1. Neti-Nasal cleaning
2. Dhouti-Oro-Gastric cleaning in reverse direction (planned Vomiting)
3. Nauli-Abdominal churning for indirect pressure on internal organs
4. Basti-Intestinal cleaning process
5. Trataka-Eye cleaning process
6. Kapalabhati- Lungs cleaning process
Complete Sequencing (Sample Practical session)
Aims: To make the teachers of traditional Hatha Yoga
Objectives: Training based on different texts of Hatha Yoga
1. Starting prayer
3. Loosening practices
4. Namaskaras (Warm-up)
5. Standing asana
6. Sitting aasna
7. Prone Lying asana
8. Supine Lying asana
14. Closing Prayer
Adjustments and alignments of each technique will be taught in every session. Students will be guided to prepare their own schedule which can be used for the final exam. Throughout the second week they can get an idea to start teaching by one to one method. Third week group teaching and finally exam.
Preparatory Breathing Practices
1. Natural breathing (or) Observed breathing
2. Diaphragmatic (or) Abdominal breathing
3. Costal (or) Ribcage breathing
4. Clavicular (or) Neck breathing
Types of Pranayama
1. Ujjayi or Ocean breathing
2. Bhramari (or) Humming breathing
3. Sheetali (or) Tongue breathing
4. Sheetkari (or) Cheeks breathing
5. Nadishodana (or) Alternate Nostril breathing
6. Suryabedha (or) Right nostril breathing
7. Bhastrika (or) Bellow’s breathing
8. Kapalabhati (or) Frontal breathing
Subtle Body/ Prana/ Breath/ Life force Energy form, which is not electrical, not magnetic and not heat, it is biological in nature. Hence it was concluded as Bioplasmic energy in 1935 by Dr. Harold Burr- 1935. This was later on experimented and supported by a lab technician, Kirlian. According to National Institute of Health Scientists in 1994, this is called as Biofield. This is composed of “electro-magnetic energy and hypothetical energy”. This is also termed as human energy field or Aura. Vedic cultures of India said this as Prana, Chinese culture termed it as Chi or Qi. This Prana is responsible for the physical body functions in 5 different directions called Vayus.
1. Udana (Up- Special senses, Mind)
2. Prana (In - Breath, blood purification, Immunity)
3. Samana (Central-Digestion)
4. Vyana (Out- Blood vessels, Nerves, limbs)
5. Apana (Down- Stools, urination, menstruation, reproduction, pregnancy
Energy locking is called as Bandha. Compression of respiratory passage at different levels of alimentary tract rearrange the pressures like, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic regions. This pressure eventually activates the circulation and the metabolic changes. So, any disfunction of the subtle energies can be normalized by Bandhas. These are advance than Pranayamas. They are;
1. Jalandhara Bandha/ Throat lock
2. Uddiyana Bandha/ Abdominal lock
3. Moola Bandha/ Root lock
4. Maha Bandha/ Psychic lock
These practices combine mudra and bandha. They charge the system with prana and prepare it for kundalini awakening.
Techniques included in this category are:
Maha mudra, Maha bheda mudra, Maha vedha mudra, Ashwini Mudra (perineal mudras)
The yoga mudras can be categorized into approximately five groups, which are described as follows.
1. Hasta mudra (Hand)
The hand mudras presented in this book are meditative mudras. They redirect the prana emitted by the hands back into the body. Mudras which join the thumb and index finger engage the motor cortex at a very subtle level. They generate a loop of energy which moves from the brain down to the hand and then back again. Conscious awareness of this process rapidly leads to internalization. Techniques included in this category are: Jnana mudra, Chin mudra, Yoni mudra, Hridaya mudra.
2. Mano mudra (Head)
These practices form an integral part of kundalini yoga and many are meditation techniques in their own right. They utilize the eyes, ears, nose, tongue and lips. Techniques included in this category are: Shambhavi mudra, Nasikagra drishti, Kaki mudra, Shanmukhi mudra
3. Kaya Mudra (Postural)
These practices utilize physical postures combined with breathing and concentration. Techniques included in this category are: Vipareeta karani mudra, Yoga mudra
OBJECTIVES: Preparation of charts for the concepts of yoga. Learn the daily routine as yogic life. Learn to express the knowledge as assignments. Learn the sun salutation mantra. Learn sages’ mantra. Learn to make the own plan. Learn to do self-assessment. Learn to accept the feedback. Learn to mould to the practices and skills. Learn to integrate the practice with theory subjects.
MEDITATION TECHNIQUES: Meditation is a spontaneous process that can only occur when the mind has been brought to a certain level of harmony and one pointedness.
Few techniques are;
- Breathing Awareness Meditation
- Om Meditation
- Dynamic Meditation
- Japa (or) Mantra Meditation
Objectives: Learn to understand the scientific basis of all yoga techniques. Learn to experience the changes before and after the practices. Learn to exchange the experiences by group discussions. Learn to deliver the modern and ancient science and their integration.
1. SKELETAL SYSTEM:
- Weight bearing is the best stimulus for the bone strength by Calcium metabolism.
- Loosening, jerky movements will increase the joint lubrication and joint flexibility.
- Stretching of muscles also helps for joint flexibility
- Joint Range of motion should be set before starting nay practice otherwise over stretch leads to joint instability.
- The Vertebral column can be neutral with all curvatures and prevents poor postures like Kyphosis, Lordosis & Scoliosis
2. MUSCULAR SYSTEM:
- Strength training: fast movements with less rest makes anaerobic metabolism and leads to fast fatigue or tiredness.
- Endurance training: slow paced movements with much rest intervals makes aerobic metabolism and leads to rare fatigue or energetic feeling.
- Isometric contractions during immobilization period help for normal healthy environment which enhances the immune process.
- Stretch is the best tool for training and lengthening of the muscle.
- Beginning stage of muscle training leads to Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness (DOMS) after the rest. But this pain can be recovered only with further training alone.
Training for skeletal, Smooth, and cardiac muscles: (10 hours)
Stretch or opening of ribcage: for the better breath and purification processes during practices
Constriction of rib cage: Initiates the outflow of Carbon Di-oxide
Breath awareness and following Ujjayi helps for ashtanga vinyasa practice by maintaining high metabolism and heat.
- Kriya: Vamana dhouti and Shanka prakshalana not only cleans but also strengthens the whole system.
- Asana: All stretching and twisting practices of neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis
- Breathing and awareness are the keys to regain the voluntary control on this sytem.
- Bandhas: Jalandara bandha, Uddiyana, moola bandha and Maha bandhas
- Diet in relation to health is the major concern of this system.
- Emotional state and the lifestyle should be keep assessing like Rajas, Tamas and Sattva
- Kegles exercises as a well-known technique in the modern world is the same in ancient texts as “Amaroli” for female and “Vajroli” for male.
- Mood swings and emotional imbalances leads to weakness of this system
- Asana: Salabasana, Dhanurasana, Mayurasana, padma mayurasana, Bakasana, mandukasana, Yoga mudrasana, Mastyasana, Vakrasana, Mrichyasana C & D
- Pranayama: Nadishodana, abdominal breathing
- Kriyas: Shankha Prakshana, Basti
- Emotional balance is the key for healthy reproductive organs. That is Brahmacharya.
- Meditation, Nadishodana pranayama can preserve the energy by less usage of these organs.
- Practices like kriyas will help these regions (Swadhishtana and Mooladhara chakras).
1. NERVOUS SYSTEM:
- Concentration (diversion to inner environment), Awareness point (drishti), effortless during practices- Meditation, chanting, breathing practices
- Feel the changes of sensations and their recovery- Meditation techniques
- Feeling of energetic sensation after any practice is the balanced functioning of nervous system
- Self-assessment and modulation of emotions over a period of time in the life along with yoga practices- Jnana yoga (Gunas)
2. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: As per the awareness with chakras and focused point (Drushti)
Hypothalamus, Pineal glands- “M” Chanting, Prasarita padottanasana, Nadishodana pranayama
Pituitary- “M” Chanting, Meditation and imagery techniques, Nadishodana pranayama, Shambhavi mudra
Thyroid- Jalandhara bandha, Ujjayi breathing, Sarvangasana, Bhramari pranayama
Thymus gland- “U” Chanting, Gowmukhasana, Vakrasana, marichyasa- A, B, C & D
Pancrease- “A” chanting, vakrasana, Trikonasana, Parivritta trikonasana, Matsyasana, Kapala bhati, Bastrika
Gonads- “A” chanting, Padmasana, Bakasana, Mayurasana, Vrischikasana, Sirshasana, Nadishodana pranayama. (Vajroli for males, Amaroli for females)
Adrenal Gland- Relaxation techniques, meditation, Vipareetakarini Mudra, Sarvangasana, Sirshasana
3. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM:
- Awareness about the changes after practices lead to mastery over this organ.
- Skeletal muscle training will reinforce the cardiac muscle & smooth muscles of blood vessels.
- This is how the deep vein thrombosis and varicose veins can be handled.
- Deep exhalations will give much space for heart activity physically. This can be used soon after much tiredness (exhale through mouth).
4. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
- Upper Respiratory tract, Lower respiratory tract
- Mechanics of breathing
- All Pranayamas for different levels of lungs like;
Normal breathing- Yogic breathing
Deep breathing- Nadi Shodana pranayama
Quick & forceful exhalation- Kapalabhati
Forceful breaths and hold- as per the daily life requirements
Yauning- is a result of metabolic disturbance of Oxygen and Carbon Di-oxide levels in the blood which will be sensed at cardiac & respiratory centers in the brain setm.
- Planes nd axis of the human body
- Nomenclature of surfaces and areas of human body
- Joint Range of motion
- Levers and leverage for different styles of yoga
- Physical limitations and contra-indications.
OBJECTIVES: Learn the golden rules of yoga profession. Learn to correlate the concepts of scriptures with real life. Learn to identify the self and implement the yogic life. Learn to deliver the scriptures.
- Definitions and Styles of Yoga
- Rig veda as oldest of all Vedas contain “Aitreya Upanishad”.
- Sama veda contains “Kena and Chandogya Upanishad”.
- Yajur veda contains “Katha, Taittiriya, Brihadaranyaka and Svetasvatara Upanishads”.
- Atharvana veda, the recent one contains “Mandukya and Kaivalya Upanishads”. Upanishads are the magnificent movements of ancient Indian wisdom.
Chitta Vrittis & Few Shlokas from PATANJALI YOGA SUTRAS
1. Kriya Yoga (Yoga of action) [PYSCh-2, Sh-1]
“Tapah Swaadhyayeshvarapranidhanani kriya yogaha”
Meaning: Austirity, Study of scriptures and surrender to God are the yoga of action.
2. Objects of kriya yoga [PYSCh-2, Sh-2]
Meaning: Promotion of concentration and thinning of afflictions.
3. Afflictions [PYSCh-2, Sh-3]
Meaning: Afflictions are Ignorance, I am –ness, atttachment, hatred, desire to cling to life.
4. Solution for Vrittis (modifications) of mind [PYSCh-3, Sh-11]
Meaning: Vrittis can be overcome with Meditation
5. Way for liberation [PYSCh-2, Sh-18]
“Prakashakriyasthitiseelam Bhootendriyatmakam Bhogapavargaartham Drishyam”
Meaning: The objects are in the from of the five elements and senses. They are sattvik that is luminous, rajasic that is active and tamasic that is static. These objects are meant for the experience of Purusha and also to attain liberation through them.
6. Stages of Gunas [PYSCh-3, Sh-19]
“Visheshavishesha- lingamatralingani gunaparvani”
Meaning: The gunas go through four stages, the specialized, not specialized, primal and unevolved.
Specialized: 5 elements (Earth, Water, Fire, Air & Space)
5 sense organs (Eyes, Nose, Ears, Tongue & Skin)
5 motor organs (Speech, Hands, Feet, 2 Excretory organs)
Unspecialized: 5 Tanmatras & 1 Ahamkara (I am -ness)
Primal: 1 Mahat (Buddhi)
So we have 24 ie, 23 evolutes of Prakriti. When the gunas are in equilibrium there is no creation. When the gunas are in disequilibrium, the evolutes come out of the unevolved Prakriti.
7. Importance of yoga [PYSCh-2, Sh-28]
“Yoganganushtana dashuchikshaye jnanadeeptiraa vivekakhyate”
Meaning: With the performance of the limbs of Yoga, the impurities are destroyed, then arises the enlightening knowledge which culminates in the discriminative knowledge.
8. Limbs of Ashtanga yoga [PYSCh-2, Sh-29]
Meaning: The eight limbs are; Yama (Discipline), Niyama (Observances), Asana (Posture), Pranayama (Exercises of life force), Pratyahara (Withdrawal of mind from sense objects), Dharana (Concentration), Dhyana (Meditation) and Samsdhi (Absorption in the self).
9. Self disciplines [PYSCh-2, Sh-30]
Meaning: Self disciplines are ahimsa (non-injury), satya (truthfulness), asteya (non- thieving) brahmacharya (continence) and aparigraha (non-acceptance)
10. Applicability of Yoga [PYSCh-2, Sh-31]
“Ete jatideshakalasamayanvacchinnaha sarvabhouma mahavratam”
Meaning: These (self disciplines) are great forms of abstention, universally applicable without any restrictions of caste, place, time and other conditions (profession, lifestyle etc.)
11. Sub divisions of Niayama [PYSCh-2, Sh-32]
Meaning: The observance are; purity, contentment, austerity, self-study & devotion to God.
12. Asana [PYSCh-2, Sh-46]
“Sthiram sukham asanam”
Meaning: Posture should be firm and comfortable. For meditation the posture should be sitting only. One should be seated firmly and relaxed way without moving the limbs to make the mind steady. Bhagawadgita says that the posture should be straight with the body, head, and neck in straight position (Samah kaya-shirogrivam).
13. Result of perfect posture [PYSCh-1, Sh-47]
Meaning: Such a posture (Shloka-46) can be attained by abandoned effort and absorption in the infinite.
14. Pranayama [PYSCh-1, Sh-49]
“Tasmin sati svasa prasvasayorgativicchedaha pranayama”
Meaning: Pranayama (the regulation of life force) which is of the nature of regulating the inhalation and exhalation of the life force is to be practiced after getting mastery over posture .
15. Different Pranayama techniques [PYSCh-1, Sh-50]
“Bahyabhyantaratsabhyavrittihi desakalasamkhyabhihi paridrishto deerghasukshma”
Meaning: Breath is seen regulated by holding it within or without or suspended, some are long and some are short depending upon the place, duration and numbers.
16. Fourth technique of Pranayama [PYSCh-1, Sh-51]
“Bahyabhyantara vishayakshepi chaturthah”
Meaning: Breath stops spontaneously while concentrating on something internal or external.
17. Pratyahara [PYSCh-2, Sh-54]
“svavishaya samprayoge chittasvarupanukara iva indriyanam pratyahara”
Meaning: The senses follow the mind in withdrawing themselves from their objects.
18. Result of Pratyahara [PYSCh-2, Sh-55]
“Tatah parama vashyatendriyanam”
Meaning: Then there is complete mastery over the senses, Pratyahara brings the senses under control. They will no more be tempted by their objects.
19. Dharana (Concentration) [PYSCh-2, Sh-53]
“Dharanasucha yogyata manasah”
Meaning: The mind is now able to concentrate
20. Dharana (Concentration) [PYSCh-3, Sh-1]
Meaning: Mind’s fixation on a particular point is Dharana (Concentration)
21. Dhyanam (Meditation) [PYSCh-3, Sh-2]
“Tatra pratyaikatanata dhayanam”
Meaning: After Dhyanam the continuous flow of similar mental waves towards the object is dhyanam
22. Samadhi (Liberation) [PYSCh-3, Sh-3]
“Tadevarthamatranirbhasam svarupashunyamiva samadhihi”
Meaning: The same, when only the object of meditation shines forth in the mind, as though devoid of the thought of even the self, that statre is called Samadhi or absorption.
23. Subconscious mind [PYSCh-4, Sh-11]
“hyetu phalasrayaalambanaih samgriheetatvaadeshaambhaavo tadbhavaha ”
Our subconcious tendencies depend upon cause and effect. They have their basis in the mind, and they are stimulated by the sense-objects. If all these are removed, the tendencies are destroyed.
24. Kaivalyam ( Liberation) [PYSCh-4,Sh-33]
“Purushaarthasoonyaanaam gunaanaam pratiprasavaha kaivalyam swaroopapratishtaa vaa chittishakteriti”
Since the Gunas no longer have any purpose to serve for the Atman, they resolve themselves into Prakriti. This is Liberation. The Atman shines forth in its own pristine nature, as pure consciousness.
Few shloka or phrases from BHAGAWAD GITA
A) Sandarbha or situation of the event, Bhagawad gita.
B) Streams of Yoga; 4 different paths for liberation
1. Jnana yoga
2. Bhakti yoga
3. Karma yoga
4. Raja yoga.
OBJECTIVES: Know the golden rules of a Yogi. Try to follow the yogic life style as every day schedule. Code of conduct is one of the assessments.
Ethics for Yoga Teachers like regularity, punctuality, loyalty, respect and dignity will be revised. The code of conduct will be explained to have a peaceful teaching-learning process. The students will be given appreciation on giving up their bad habits like alcohol, smoking, etc.,
1. According to Yoga Philosophy: Yama, Niyama, yogic diet, yogic sleeping habits, yogic behaviour.
2. According to Yoga Bhagawad Gita: Sthitaprajna (a balanced personality)
3. According to Yoga Alliance